2013 Proceedings

Papers and Panel Sessions | Poster Sessions

Poster Sessions

Following each Title of Presentation are links to view/download PDF files of the poster’s abstract and its image graphic displayed at the conference.

Readers are encouraged to contact authors for additional information about their presentations and on-going research.

You may use the following citation styles to cite works from these proceedings:

APA Style
[Author Lastname, First initial.] (2013). [Title of paper.] Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.icoet.net/ICOET_2013/proceedings-poster-sessions.asp

MLA Style
[Author Lastname, Firstname.] ["Title of Paper."] Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation (2013): N. pag. Web. [Date Accessed.] <http://www.icoet.net/ICOET_2013/proceedings-poster-sessions.asp>.

Poster Session 1 | Poster Session 2

Poster Session 1

Spatially Explicit Simulations Indicate that Roadkill has Clear Consequences for Genetic Diversity
Abstract (PDF:65KB) | Image (PDF:572KB)

Karl Jarvis, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States

Many studies suggest that roads have effects on the genetics of most types of wildlife populations. However, little is known about the specific effects of roadkill on genetic diversity. We tested the hypothesis that populations divided by roadkill would develop lower levels of genetic diversity in neighborhoods near a road than would populations that simply avoid a road. To test our hypothesis, we simulated a range of scenarios, independently varying levels of roadkill, avoidance, and landscape resistance to movement. We found that populations divided by roadkill have a different pattern of genetic diversity than do populations separated by road avoidance. [Poster P-01]

Spatial Factors Influencing Mammal Road-Kills in Southeastern Brazil
Abstract (PDF:90KB)| Image (PDF:484KB)

Carlos Henrique de Freitas, University Center of Araxá, Minas Gerais; and Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz, UNICAMP – State University of Campinas,  Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Mammals are victims of road kills in Brazilian roads and this imposes a crescent threatened to species and drivers safety. We focuses on spatial factors that affect mammal’s vehicle collisions and presents a useful tool that can helps the correct enforcement of mitigation measures, design and built new ways. [Poster P-02]

A Model of Road Effect Using Line Integrals and a Test of the Performance of Two New Road Indices Using the Distribution of Small Mammals in an Atlantic Forest Landscape
Abstract (PDF:15KB)| Image (PDF:875KB)

Simone Freitas, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, Brazil

We combined GIS and Differential Calculus to introduce two new road effect indices (Integral Road Effect, IRE; and, Average Value of the Infinitesimal Road Effect, AVIRE), and evaluated their performance compared to other models to explain small mammal abundance. AVIRE obtained the best performance of forest specialist species. The nearest road distance obtained the best performance to generalist species. AVIRE allows for separating the effect of roads to the effect of habitat. Authors note: This work was previously published in Ecological Modelling. [Poster P-03]

Conceptual and Computational Model of the Road Effect Zone for Transportation Planning
Abstract (PDF:57KB) | Image (PDF:2.28MB)

Hye-Jin Cho, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; and Fraser Shilling, University of California, Davis, California, United States

Transportation agencies are required to assess the potential and actual environmental impacts of existing and proposed infrastructure. The only meaningful meme that has been developed to fully conceptualize these impacts has been the Road Effect Zone (REZ; Forman et al., 2005, “Road Ecology”). We describe a way to use existing tools and knowledge to computationally estimate the extent and characteristics of the REZ and thus evaluate potential and actual impacts of infrastructure and traffic on natural and human environments. Effective use of the REZ by transportation agencies and others has planning, regulatory, and stewardship implications and uses. [Poster P-04]

A Conceptual Model of Transportation Impacts as a Communication and Planning Tool
Abstract (PDF:65KB) | Image (PDF:721KB)

Jan Olof Helldin, Calluna AB, Stockholm, Sweden

This presentation describes a conceptual model that gives a comprehensible view of the diverse impacts of transport infrastructure on Swedish biodiversity. The model is intended as a tool for communication and planning, by describing the ecological sustainability of the transport infrastructure in a glance, and providing basis for priorities in nature conservation efforts and research. The model development per se has worked as a forum for in-depth discussion among specialists from different fields, and is on its way to create a unified understanding of the complex impact of transport infrastructure on biodiversity. [Poster P-05]

Barrier Effects of Roads on an Endangered Forest Obligate: Role of Forest Structure
Abstract (PDF:65KB)| Image (PDF:2.06MB)

Hsiang Ling Chen and John Koprowski, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

Roads, especially highways have been shown act as barriers for many species by restricting individual movements to one side of a road. However, do you know narrow, dirt roads with traffic volume < 200 vehicles/day can be barriers for forest dependent species as well? We use red squirrel as a model to understand barrier effects of roads and traffic on forest obligate. We will present results of our study that answers the following questions: Do squirrels avoid roads because of road edges, clearing areas, vehicles or traffic disturbances? How to improve road permeability to maintain population connectivity among forested patches? [Poster P-06]

Motorways and Roads Affect Foraging Movements of Diurnal Raptors at Different Spatial Scales: General and Species-Specific Responses
Abstract (PDF:18KB)| Image (PDF:596KB)

Aimara Planillo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Little is known about the reaction of raptors toward roads or motorways. These are landscape feature that can affect the territory use of raptors. The more human tolerant species could be attracted by these structures as sources of prey and carcasses, while other species would avoid them. Understanding the general trends and the reaction of each species will help us to address future conservation problems, such as increased traffic mortality for species selecting roads, or decrease of habitat available for species avoiding them. [Poster P-07]

Restoring Connections Across Existing Transport Infrastructures in Spain
Abstract (PDF:70KB)| Image (PDF:5.29MB)

Georgina Álvarez Jiménez, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Madrid; and Carme Rosell, Minuartia Environmental Consultants, Sant Celoni – Barcelona, Spain

From 1994 till the present time, a wide variety of defragmentation measures have been implemented along existing roads and railways in Spain. These actions include the construction of new fauna passages to reestablish connections between both sides of the roads and other measures aim to reduce road mortality, restore ecological connectivity, and mitigate edge effects and any other impacts associated with habitat fragmentation. Coordination between transport and wildlife administration bodies is needed to carry out such actions. The quantitative and qualitative implementation of effective measures is being increased in the framework of a National Working Group on Habitat Fragmentation due to Transport Infrastructures, which is a "working together" project. [Poster P-08]

A Landscape-Based Approach for Delineating Hotspots of Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions
Abstract (PDF:15KB)| Image (PDF:2.06MB)

Nathan Snow, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

Previous methods for delineating hotspots of wildlife-vehicle collisions have involved arbitrary decisions and lack of independence among collision locations. We developed a new technique using kernel density estimation and attributes of the surrounding landscape to inform the delineation of hotspots. We demonstrated the utility of our approach for 3 species of wildlife that were characterized by varying degrees of landscape complexity and spatial scale. Our approach delineated hotspots in a meaningful manner, eliminated arbitrary decisions, and ensured independent hotspots. This method can be useful for identifying boundaries around the highest risk hotspots. [Poster P-11]

How Did the Alkali Bee Cross the Road? Assessing Transportation Impacts to Alfalfa Seed Production in the Walla Walla Valley
Abstract (PDF:68KB) | Image (PDF:852KB)

Amber Vinchesi, Washington State University, Prosser, Washington, United States

The Washington State Department of Transportation is proposing safety improvements to US Highway 12 near the town of Touchet, Washington. The improvements include realignment to the north in order to accommodate a wider roadway and avoid impacting Touchet. The proposed realignment route is within an area critical to alfalfa seed production. The most efficient pollinators of alfalfa are alkali bees, native ground-nesting bees raised in bee beds by farmers. Relocation of the highway will bisect several bee beds and alfalfa fields. WSDOT contracted with Washington State University entomologists to conduct a four-year study on alkali bee populations and flight paths. [Poster P-12]

Primary Investigation on the Impact of the Sino-Pakistan Karakoram Highway on the Eco-Environment Along the Road
Abstract (PDF:177KB)| Image (PDF:1.35MB)

Jiding Chen, Shuangcheng Tao and Jian Zhou, China Academy of Transportation Sciences, Beijing, China

Roads, especially highways have been shown act as barriers for many species by restricting individual movements to one side o f a road. However, do you know narrow, dirt roads with traffic volume < 200 vehicles/day can be barriers for forest dependent species as well? We use red squirrel as a model to understand barrier effects of roads and traffic on forest obligate. We will present results of our study that answers the following questions: Do squirrels avoid roads because of road edges, clearing areas, vehicles or traffic disturbances? How to improve road permeability to maintain population connectivity among forested patches? [Poster P-14]

Arizona's Wildlife Features Inventory System: Tracking and Maintaining What We've Built
Abstract (PDF:105KB) | Image (PDF:4.24MB)

Justin White, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

ADOT has implemented numerous comprehensive projects to mitigate the impact of highway construction on wildlife and promote highway safety and landscape connectivity. With the number and diversity of its wildlife improvements growing, ADOT was challenged with tracking and maintaining asset functionality to meet intended mitigation objectives, especially under tightening maintenance budgets. To address this need to track and manage its inventory of wildlife assets and develop a proactive approach to ensuring that needed maintenance is accomplished, we employed ADOT’s GIS-based Features Inventory System to conduct a statewide inventory of wildlife assets, assess asset condition, and prioritize maintenance needs. [Poster P-15]

Wildlife-Road Observation System (WROS): A Globally-Accessible Technology for Mitigating Wildlife-Road Impacts
Abstract (PDF:59KB) | Image (PDF:959KB)

Les Misch, WROS Global, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

WROS (Wildlife-Road Observation System) is a globally accessible website and database integrated with mobile technology that can be used to collect, store, and obtain wildlife-road observation data in North America, Europe, Australia and other regions of the world. WROS was designed to assist transportation and natural resource managers; private consultants and industry; conservation organizations; researchers; citizen scientists; and, the general public to help reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions, improve road safety and conserve wildlife populations locally and globally. WROS offers many advantages and benefits, which are presented with focus on one major advantage – improved efficiency and time savings in data collection and management. [Poster P-16]

New Web Resources for Connectivity Practitioners
Abstract (PDF:61KB)| Image (PDF:2.82MB)

Patrick Crist, NatureServe, Boulder, Colorado; and Jimmy Kagan, Oregon State University, Portland, Oregon, United States

NatureServe and North Carolina State University have collaborated on two new web resources for wildlife connectivity practitioners. The NatureServe site (landscope.org) provides step-by-step guidance for new practitioners to approach the technical tasks of characterizing, assessing, and planning for wildlife connectivity. That guidance is integrally linked to a breadth of resources on NC State University’s conservationcorridor.org site that provides the scientific background, library, digests, and examples. Together these integrated websites provide an unparalleled resource to understand the issues, approaches, and solutions for maintaining and restoring wildlife connectivity. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the transportation issues around wildlife connectivity and will demonstrate the use of the web resources for obtaining information and guidance. [Poster P-17]

Evaluation of a Wildlife Fencing Retrofit Along Interstate-17 in Arizona
Abstract (PDF:97KB) | Image (PFD:2.00MB)

Chad Loberger, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

While road reconstruction offers an opportunity to integrate wildlife crossing structures and ungulate proof fencing to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions, reconstruction is often a long term, funding dependent endeavor that may take decades to become an on-the-ground reality. An expedient, temporary, and relatively inexpensive solution may be retrofitting the roadways existing 1.2 meter (4') right-of-way fence with an additional 1.2-m (4') of vertical fencing. Our research along a high elk-vehicle collision section of Arizona’s Interstate 17 found that retrofitted right-of-way fencing reduced elk-vehicle collisions by 100% and increased the number of elk and deer using existing roadway bridges by 120% and 83% respectively. [Poster P-18]

Operational Field Trial of a Retrofitted Fence to Mitigate Deer-Vehicle Collisions
Abstract (PDF:142KB) | Image (PDF:2.25MB)

Jim Stickles, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States

Using a before-after design, we are investigating the effectiveness of a 1.2-m woven wire fence, retrofitted with a 0.6-m outrigger angled at 45° away from the highway and strung with five strands of high tensile wire, at mitigating deer-vehicle collisions. If effective in a field setting, this fence design may provide an alternative to the standard 2.4-m ungulate-proof fencing. [Poster P-19]

Large Mammal Management in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario in Relation to Logging Road Ecology
Abstract (PDF:72KB)| Image (PDF:2.24MB)

Hillary Roulston, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

This study examines the presence of large mammal species on two types of logging roads in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Transects were driven to collect local-level data and in-lab GIS data was used to supplement a landscape scale approach. Both spatial scales were used to determine what variables were important in determining mammal use on the primary or branch logging roads. Overall, branch logging road use was higher and had greater significance of the landscape-level variables. This economic and timesaving method has the potential to answer key questions for large mammal management and road ecology. [Poster P-20]

Acceptance of Large Mammal Underpasses By White-Tailed Deer and Mule Deer
Abstract (PDF:60KB)| Image (PDF:311KB)

Jeremiah Purdum and Marcel Huijser, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States

This study explores the use of a relatively new method to determine the suitability of crossing structures for target species. Instead of focusing on absolute use, this study focuses on the use of acceptance rates, measured by recording the total number of attempted crossings of the structure by a species and calculating the percentage of these approaches that actually result in a road crossing using that same structure. We argue that recommendations for a particular type of structure and its dimensions should include the acceptance rates of the structure by the target. [Poster P-21]

Effectiveness of Wildlife Guards as a Barrier to Wildlife at Access Roads
Abstract (PDF:60KB)| Image (PDF:838KB)

Tiffany Allen and Marcel Huijser, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States

Wildlife fencing can greatly reduce wildlife access to the road corridor, especially for ungulates. However, in developed areas, gaps in fences are necessary to allow vehicles access to and from main roadways. Wildlife guards, similar to cattle guards, appear to be an interesting mitigation for such gaps. This poster presents a field study that investigated how effective a particular type of wildlife guard design was in keeping mule deer, white-tailed deer, black bear, and coyotes from accessing the right-of-way along a fenced section of U.S. Highway 93 in Montana. [Poster P-22]

Evaluation of the Reliability and Effectiveness of an Animal Detection System Along Highway 3 Near Ft. Jones, California
Abstract (PDF:99KB)| Image (PDF:209KB)

Marcel Huijser, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States

We investigated the reliability and effectiveness of a microwave break-the-beam animal detection system (ICx Radar Systems), along State Hwy 3 (SR-3) near Ft Jones, northern California, USA. At least 74% of all detections were "correct" and vehicles reduced speed by 5.5%. We recommend improving the reliability of the system by installing sensors for vehicles at access roads that prevent the warning lights from turning on when a vehicle turns on or off the highway, reducing potential downtime and operation and maintenance costs, improving the warning signs, and to implement an extensive communication program with drivers and the general public. [Poster P-23]

A Comparison of Two "No Glow" Motion-Triggered Cameras at Opposite Ends of the Cost Range
Abstract (PDF:138KB)| Image (PDF:4.25MB)

Kelly McAllister, Washington State DOT, Olympia, Washington, United States

Motion-triggered cameras are among the best tools for monitoring wildlife use of crossing structures. A fast trigger, ability to take bursts of multiple images, night time functionality with "no glow" illumination, and high resolution images are all desirable. We compared Reconyx PC900 ($650) and HC600 ($550) cameras to the Bushnell Trophy Cam HD Max ($250). As might be expected based on price, the Reconyx cameras performed better in almost every category. The Bushnell camera has a couple of potential advantages in sensitivity settings and video capability that are worth considering. [Poster P-24]

A Long-Term Evaluation of an Animal Activated At-Grade Wildlife Crossing in Arizona
Abstract (PDF:64KB)| Image (PDF:2.07MB)

Jeffrey Gagnon, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

We evaluated the effectiveness of an animal-activated at grade wildlife crossing combined with wildlife fencing linking together existing bridges intended to serve as wildlife underpasses. Following six years of evaluation we realized a 97% decrease in elk-vehicle collisions and single-vehicle accidents dropped 64%. Motorist reduced speeds 9 miles/hr (14 km/hr) and 68% of motorists braked when the signs were activated versus only 8% when not activated. GPS collared elk movements across the highway decreased 70%. Under the right circumstances, innovative solutions like crosswalks provide viable options to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions, while allowing access to essential resources. [Poster P-25]

Use of a Driving Simulator to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Roadside Animal Detection System on U.S. Highway 41, Collier County, Florida
Abstract (PDF:88KB) | Image (PDF:803KB)

Daniel Smith and Molly Grace, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States

We are evaluating a Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) installed along U.S. Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida. The system is intended to reduce collisions between vehicles and large wildlife and increase road permeability for these species. The ability of the system to detect wildlife will be tested in the field. We are also employing a novel approach: using a driving simulator to test whether or not the RADS changes human behavior (improved response time/ alertness). Because RADS do not keep animals off the roadway, they cannot be considered effective unless they positively affect human behavior. [Poster P-26]

Effectiveness of Road Mitigation for Preserving a Common Toad Population
Abstract (PDF:17KB)| Image (PDF:4.86MB)

Fabrice Ottburg and Edgar van der Grift, Alterra – Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, Province Gelderland, The Netherlands

On the edge of the city of Ede, one of the largest populations of the common toad in the Netherlands is bisected by a two-lane road. To prevent massive roadkill of toads during spring migration, two amphibian tunnels and drift fences were installed. Our study objective was (1) to see whether the amphibian tunnels are used by the toads, (2) whether crossing rates of toads in the tunnels equal the number of toads that used to be helped across the road by the volunteers, and (3) if population numbers post-mitigation are similar to population numbers before the mitigation took place. [Poster P-28]

How Much Does Size Matter? Tunnel Size Significantly Influence Amphibian Crossings At Parassapuszta, Hungary According to Mid-Term Monitoring Used to Delineate Mitigation Measure Improvement Plans
Abstract (PDF:16KB)| Image (PDF:533KB)

Miklós Puky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Göd, Hungary

The amphibian migration in the Parassapuszta area is well-known in Europe due to a nearly three decade-long toad rescue operation including approximately 5,000 people from 20 countries. The migrating part of the local amphibian community may reach 50,000 individuals in years with rainy spring. In 2006 a 1.2 km mitigation measure including twelve tunnels of different sizes (40 and 60 cm in diameter) and previously built culverts of 160 and 170 cm height were constructed without consultation with relevant experts. Statistically significant differences were found among the crossing ratio in the three main tunnel types. [Poster P-29]

The Effectiveness of a Wildlife and Fish Passage Crossing Structure in South Central Washington State
Abstract (PDF:62KB)| Image (PDF:3.78MB)

Jon Peterson and Kelly McAllister, Washington State DOT, Olympia, Washington, United States

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) recently constructed an innovative combination wildlife connectivity & fish passage project at Butler Creek on US 97 near Goldendale, Washington. A round corrugated metal culvert that was 2.8 meters (9 ft) in diameter and a complete wildlife & fish passage barrier was replaced with a 19.8 meter bridge (65 ft) in 2012 -13. WSDOT will monitor use by wildlife with motion triggered cameras. We anticipate that future data should show a decline in white tail deer and vehicle collisions from this point forward around Butler Creek. Check back with us! [Poster P-30]

Implementing Wildlife Crossing Infrastructure: Understanding the Culture of U.S. State Departments of Transportation
Abstract (PDF:74KB)| Image (PDF:2.14MB)

Angela Kociolek and Rob Ament, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States

Currently, the decision to implement wildlife crossings remains with individual state Departments of Transportation (DOT), tribal governments, or federal land management units; whereas large-scale habitat connectivity for wildlife would likely improve with systemic implementation at regional or national scales. The purpose of this interview and survey effort was to better understand the role of DOT culture in the consideration of wildlife crossings. Three main themes emerged as the primary barriers to overcome for widespread implementation. Findings from this study may inform the promotion of new solutions so that wildlife crossings become a standard practice across the US road network. [Poster P-31]

Spiny Softshell Turtle Monitoring Results from the Missisquoi Bay Bridge Project
Abstract (PDF:61KB)| Image (PDF:1.17MB)

Jed Merrow, McFarland Johnson, Concord, New Hampshire, United States

Vermont state-threatened spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) hibernation, basking, and movements were monitored before, during, and after construction of a new bridge over Missisquoi Bay in northern Lake Champlain. Monitoring showed that construction activities and new bridge infrastructure influenced hibernation and basking locations, but spiny softshells continued to hibernate and bask in the bridge project area. Temporary basking platforms deployed during construction were successful in attracting turtles, but a permanent platform has been less successful. An inter-agency monitoring team was established which advised on permit amendments and monitoring, facilitating a flexible and adaptive approach to mitigation and monitoring. [Poster P-32]

Estimating the Probability of Illegal Desert Tortoise Collection Along Roadways in the Sonoran Desert
Abstract (PDF:62KB) | no image available

Hillary Hoffman, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

The impact of road expansion throughout Sonoran desert tortoise habitat has raised concerns about mitigation. While direct impacts, namely road mortality and habitat loss, have been well documented, indirect impacts such as illegal collection have been insufficiently addressed. By conducting a decoy study, we estimated the probability of tortoise collection along 2-lane paved, maintained gravel, and nonmaintained gravel roads to evaluate whether collection probabilities correlated to road type. Detection and collection probabilities by motorists were highest on maintained gravel roads. These results have implications for comprehensive mitigation strategies, such as creating crossing structures and increasing public education. [Poster P-33]

Turtle Underpass on the New England Central Railroad: A Simple and Cost-Effective Solution Providing Habitat Connectivity for a Population of Endangered Turtles
Abstract (PDF:62KB)| Image (PDF:3.10MB)

James Brady and Chris Slesar, Vermont Agency of Transportation, Montpelier, Vermont, United States

The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans), Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife (VDF&W), and The New England Central Railroad (NECR), where presented with the opportunity to reconnect vital spotted turtle habitat in southern Vermont during construction of a multi-state American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) high-speed rail upgrade project. VTrans, VDF&W and NECR committed to finding a solution to provide turtles with safe passage across the tracks, while keeping design and construction costs low, and not impacting the project schedule. Fifteen low-cost crossings were incorporated into a 700 foot (213.4 meter) section of track that bisects this important wetland complex. [Poster P-34]

Poster Session 2

A Trifecta of Insight: Merging Field Biology, Infrastructure Planning and Aboriginal Community Knowledge to Design Successful Highway Mitigation for At-Risk Reptiles
Abstract (PDF:62KB) | Image (PDF:1.15MB)

Julia Riley, Magnetawan First Nation, Britt, Ontario, Canada

The Georgian Bay coast in Ontario, Canada is an area of high reptile biodiversity. Paralleling the Georgian Bay coast is Highway 400/69, which is currently undergoing an expansion project. Magnetawan First Nation recognized the threat roads pose to reptile populations, and formed a partnership with Laurentian University, and the Ontario Ministry of Transportation to collect baseline abundance and spatial ecology data on reptile species at risk that will be used to inform highway mitigation measures. This case study is an example of how a multi-partner approach to road design may create ecologically- and community-friendly infrastructure. [Poster P-35]

The Nexus of Transportation and Ecology: Improving Resiliency of Urban Ecosystems by Increasing Landscape Connectivity for Wildlife through Informed Transportation Planning
Abstract (PDF:11KB) | Image (PDF:4.15MB)

Namrata Shrestha-Bajimaya, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

This poster provides an overview of the study that used the fundamental concepts of wildlife movement ecology and road ecology in conjunction with spatial analysis techniques to develop a multi-scale spatially explicit model that identifies ecologically strategic locations for enhancing landscape connectivity for urban wildlife. Specifically, using a case study of spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) representing wetland-forest low mobility movement guild of wildlife for defining local and regional connectivity, this study highlights the translation of science into operational tools that facilitates sustainable transportation infrastructure planning in an urban and peri-urban landscape. [Poster P-36]

Linking Landscapes for Massachusetts Wildlife: A Wildlife-Transportation Agency Partnership
Abstract (PDF:88KB) | Image (PDF:2.89MB)

Timothy Dexter, Massachusetts DOT, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

The Massachusetts Department of Transportation Highway Division and the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program have an Interdepartmental Service Agreement to streamline transportation-related project reviews under the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act and to collaborate proactively in the field of road ecology. The partnership has successfully facilitated early project coordination, reduced review timeframes, and has led to innovative environmental mitigation solutions, and MassDOT projects have become more cost-effective and environmentally sensitive. The partners also collaborate outside of the regulatory context to mitigate the effects of transportation infrastructure on wildlife and ecosystems in Massachusetts. [Poster P-37]

Wildlife Linkage Design in Cochise County, Arizona: Using Collaborative Efforts to Model and Incorporate Wildlife Linkage Designs into Local Transportation Projects
Abstract (PDF:88KB) | Image (PDF:1.98MB)

Sara Sillars and Jessica Lamberton-Moreno, Sky Island Alliance, Tucson, Arizona, United States

Interstate-10 poses a significant barrier to north-south wildlife movement in Cochise County, Arizona. The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) proposes to conduct a climbing lane and traffic interchange reconstruction project on Interstate-10 along 15 miles of Interstate between the Dragoon, Winchester and Galiuro mountains, providing an opportunity to improve connectivity for wildlife. With input from local biologists and planners, we modeled movement corridors that are biologically the best fit using a multi-species approach. The final cartographic product includes planning and road mitigation recommendations and serves as a model for future wildlife linkage designs and transportation projects in Cochise County. [Poster P-38]

The Development and Implementation of a Successful Wildlife Corridor Through a Public-Private Partnership in Norfolk, Virginia: A Case Study
Abstract (PDF:87KB) | Image (PDF:960KB)

Stephanie Downs, Voolla.org, Washington, District of Columbia; and Stephanie Boyles Griffin, The Humane Society of the United States, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States

In 2009, a private citizen of Norfolk, Virginia discovered a wildlife-vehicle collision hotspot along a four-lane causeway between a naval base and Lake Whitehurst where at least 150 aquatic turtles and tortoises were killed every year. To reduce annual death toll, the citizen worked with City of Norfolk, the U.S. Navy, multiple for-profit businesses, and a team of volunteers to create safe passage for wildlife through the design and installation of funnel systems and wildlife ladders. As a result, we estimate that over 420 turtles and tortoises have been spared to date. [Poster P-39]

Integral Plan for Ecological Restoration, Slope Stabilization and Wildlife Crossing for Construction Affected Sites: A Case Study in Sinaloa, Mexico
Abstract (PDF:146KB) | no image available

Norma Fernandez Buces, Grupo Selome SA de CV, Mexico City, Mexico

Environmentally authorized road projects in Mexico are conditioned to the execution of mitigation, restoration and compensation measures. Their realization must be coordinated with construction program within a Mitigation Management Plan; however sometimes construction due program urges actions that cannot be adequately mitigate and therefore emergency restoration activities need to be implemented. Such is the case of a highway project "Durango-Mazatlan," fragments El Salto-Concordia and Villa Unión-Concordia, in Sinaloa, México; where a MMP was developed and executed to restore affected vegetation, stabilize slopes and enable wildlife crossing, using construction residues and native vegetation for optimal economic and ecological results. [Poster P-40]

Seeding the Slippery Slopes of the Southern Tier
Abstract (PDF:83KB) | Image (PDF:5.29MB)

Pauline Burnes and Ed Frantz (presenter), New York State DOT, Hornell, New York, United States

Extensive environmental studies and collaboration between Pennsylvania DOT and the New York State DOT were necessary to select an alignment for the reconstruction of US Route 15. The 6-mile long, 4-lane highway project crosses hills with rounded shoulders and steep slopes. Hilltops are generally level and crowned by fields or pasture. Mixed deciduous forests cover the steep hillsides while agriculture and communities vie for the level valley floor. The resulting highway alignment was selected to avoid, minimize, and mitigate impacts to natural, agricultural, cultural and scenic resources. Erosion and sediment control, stormwater management, and various seed types were used to protect natural resources and enhance upland wildlife habitat for pollinators, birds, amphibians, reptiles and small mammals. [Poster P-41]

Can Highway Rights-Of-Ways Slow Down Climate Change?
Abstract (PDF:84KB) | Image (PDF:816KB)

Bill Dunn, Ecosystem Management, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

We studied the potential of state highway rights-of-ways (ROW) in New Mexico to mitigate climate change through sequestration of carbon (i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC)). The Upper Montane biome contained the highest density, but the Prairie biome had the highest amount of SOC because of extensive ROWs. Precipitation, clay, grass, and litter were associated with SOC levels. Planting legumes, imprinting soils to capture water and nutrients, and retaining live biomass through reduced mowing will be tested to determine their efficacy to enhance carbon sequestration within ROWs. [Poster P-42]

Avoiding the Tragedy of the Commons: An Arizona DOT Example
Abstract (PDF:82KB) | Image (PDF:360KB)

Wendy Terlizzi and Leigh Waite, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

The 'tragedy of the commons' is a term coined by scientist Garrett Hardin in 1968 describing what can happen in groups when individuals act in their own best self-interests and ignore what's best for the whole group. In an agency as large and diverse as the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) there are multiple opportunities for this to occur. The development of a standard format for Facility Pollution Prevention Plans is the primary way ADOT was able to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' at its facilities. [Poster P-43]

Mitigation Monitoring Reporting System (MMRS): An Improved Approach to Data Management and Reporting
Abstract (PDF:87KB) | Image (PDF:638KB)

Robert Carson, Mason, Bruce and Girard, Inc., Portland, Oregon, United States

MB&G is completing year 5 of a 10-year mitigation program management contract for ODOT. The MMRS provides improved overall management efficiency for this complex program. MMRS is an enterprise web application that provides a common interface to program GIS data and program management documents. The application is intuitive and requires no special training or software—all that is needed is an internet connection and a browser. The MMRS has improved communication among biologists, maintenance crews, ODOT, and regulatory agency staff by allowing for "virtual site visits" conducted via the Web. Come to the poster session for a live demo! [Poster P-44]

The Highway-Runoff Database: A Data Warehouse and Preprocessor for the New FHWA-USGS Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)
Abstract (PDF:88KB) | Image (PDF:1.78MB)

Gregory Granato and Marlys Osterhues, US Geological Survey, Northborough, Massachusetts, United States

The USGS, in cooperation with the FHWA developed the Highway Runoff Database (HRDB) as a data warehouse and preprocessor for the new Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM). The latest version of the highway runoff database includes 54,384 eventmean concentrations, from 4,186 storm events monitored at 117 study sites across the country. The HRDB includes data for 194 highway runoff constituents. Ready availability of this highway-runoff data in a standard format and the ease of use of the graphical user interface should provide information to improve project delivery without compromising environmental protection. [Poster P-45]

Social and Economic Benefits from Increased Flood Resilience of Stream Simulation Designs: Examining Tropical Storm Irene Impacts in Vermont
Abstract (PDF:97KB) | Image (PDF:1.86MB)

Nat Gillespie and Marjorie Apodaca, US Forest Service, Washington, DC, United States

A retrospective case study of the survival and failure of road-stream crossings was conducted in the upper White River watershed and the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) in Vermont following record flooding from Tropical Storm Irene in August 2011. Damage was largely avoided at two road-stream crossings where stream simulation was implemented and extensive at multiple road-stream crossings constructed using traditional, undersized hydraulic designs. Cost analyses suggest that relatively modest increases in initial investment to implement stream simulation designs yield substantial societal and economic benefits. Recommendations are presented to help agencies and stakeholders improve road-stream crossings. [Poster P-46]

Innovative Solutions to Reducing Permanent Impacts to Waters of the United States: Case Study on the Interstate-15 La Mesa/Nisqualli Interchange Project, Victorville, California
Abstract (PDF103KB:) | Image (PDF:4.16MB)

Stephanie Oslick, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Orange, California, United States

The Interstate 15 La Mesa/Nisqualli Interchange Project (High Desert Region of San Bernardino County) had the potential to permanently impact 3.85 acres of the Oro Grande Wash, a tributary to the Mojave River and Water of the United States. By incorporating some creative "out of the box" engineering solutions with minimal cost implications, the project team was able to reduce impacts by over 78 percent (to 0.84 acres), a significant reduction to jurisdictional areas. With mitigation tied to the "permanent impact acreage," this reduction also resulted in a significant decrease in the acreages and costs associated with mitigation and construction. [Poster P-47]

Analyses of the Runoff Glacial Meltwater Characteristics Along the Karakoram Highway
Abstract (PDF:133KB) | Image (PDF:223KB)

Shuangcheng Tao, China Academy of Transportation Sciences, Beijing, China

Karakoram Highway is located in the northern part of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, starting in the north of the Pakistani capital of Islamabad, end at Chinese Kashgar. In 2006 Pakistani government decided to rehabilitation of the Karakoram Highway from Raikot bridge to Kunjirap pass. However, more than 90% of the Highway companied with the Indus, Gilgit River, Hunza River and Kunjirap River. In order to study the environmental characteristics of runoff glacial meltwater, and to provide good protection of water in the process of improvement of Karakoram Highway, the samples were collected at Indus, Hunza River, Gilgit River and Kunjirap River along the Karakoram Highway from September 2008 to October 2011. [Poster P-48]

Efficacy of Roadway Stormwater and Other Drainage Facilities as Suitable Wood Stork Forage Habitat in Central Florida
Abstract (PDF:16KB) | Image (PDF:1.17MB)

Kristin Caruso, Scheda Ecological Associates, Inc., Tampa, Florida, United States

The wood stork (Mycteria americana) is a federally endangered species which forages predominately in wetlands with shallow water areas with open canopies, high prey densities, and calm water. While natural wetlands are commonly utilized, the species is also known to forage in artificial impoundments and ditches. Impacts to wood stork foraging habitat are subject to wood stork biomass foraging assessment and mitigation compensation requirements. We are evaluating three common forms of roadside drainage facilities: stormwater management facilities (SMF), floodplain compensation (FPC) sites, and roadside ditches. We seek to ascertain if their characteristics are similar to those found in natural wetlands to determine if the designed facilities provide suitable foraging habitat for the species, and ultimately to incorporate them into a mitigation plan and minimize mitigation credit cost. [Poster P-49]

A Synthesis of Road Ecology in Ontario, Canada: Emerging Issues and New Directions
Abstract (PDF:100KB) | Image (PDF:321KB)

Kari Gunson, Eco-Kare International, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada

Ontario harbours the highest biodiversity and road kilometers in Canada. As a consequence, road-kill is an obvious and well-documented phenomenon for many large and small wildlife species. These road impacts, increased world-wide attention to road ecology, and the Endangered Species Act (2007), have contributed to a progressive shift to integrate research into planning over the past decade. Several key mitigation and monitoring projects with multi-agency collaborations are reviewed, e.g. Long Point Causeway, and Ontario’s first wildlife overpass. A synthesis with conclusions, and lessons learned will be summarized to facilitate new research directions with practical application to road mitigation solutions. [Poster P-50]

The Evolution of the Transportation Ecology Discipline: An Analysis of Ten Years of ICOET Proceedings
Abstract (PDF:207KB) | Image (PDF:459KB)

Ann Hartell, Vienna University of Economics & Business, Vienna, Austria; and Eugene Murray, Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

This poster presents an overview of the history of ICOET and a content analysis of a decade’s worth of ICOET proceedings. The analysis provides insights into the topics, research methods, and taxa represented in the proceedings as well as the locations and affiliations of authors. Using a "sociology of science' perspective to evaluate the evolution of this community of researchers and practitioners, the authors identify initiatives that can strengthen and sustain transportation ecology as a unique, cross-disciplinary, applied community of research and practice. [Poster P-51]

Outreach Matters! Highway Wildlife Mitigation Outreach Activities on the Flathead Indian Reservation and Surrounding Areas, Montana
Abstract (PDF:88KB) | Image (PDF:3.41MB)

Kylie Paul, People’s Way Partnership and Defenders of Wildlife, Missoula, Montana; Whisper Camel-Means, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Pablo, Montana; and Marcel Huijser, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States

The People’s Way Partnership is a unique and effective collaboration of tribal biologists, road ecologists, transportation department members, and a wildlife conservation organization. Our mission is to effectively communicate the conservation value of the 41 wildlife mitigation measures along US 93 North in Montana. We have undertaken outreach efforts to generate support for wildlife-highway mitigations. We led a fun and valuable drawing contest that engaged 950 children, with 340 (adorable) posters submitted. We’ve designed informational signs at rest stops along US 93 for the travelling public, and we’ve developed other exciting outreach materials to tell the story of roads and wildlife. [Poster P-52]

Broadening the Scope of What Citizen Science and Non-Invasive Wildlife Monitoring Can Provide to Transportation Planning: Stories of Success from the Sky Island Region
Abstract (PDF:133KB) | Image (PDF:1.68MB)

Jessica Moreno, Sky Island Alliance, Tucson, Arizona, United States

Conservationists and planners can mutually benefit from close partnership to connect fragmented landscapes and reduce wildlife vehicle collisions through short and long range transportation planning. Sky Island Alliance gives examples of citizen science wildlife monitoring efforts and collaboration that have facilitated effective transportation planning and implementation by helping planners avoid fatal flaws, proactively clear roadways for construction, and develop effective mitigation strategies for sensitive species and identified wildlife linkages. [Poster P-53]

The Highway 89 Stewardship Team: Mitigation, Research and Education to Improve Wildlife Passage
Abstract (PDF:85KB) | Image (PDF:2.00MB)

Sara Holm, California Department of Fish and Game, Rancho Cordova, California, United States

The Highway 89 Stewardship Team is a grassroots collaboration of passionate professionals from federal, state and local levels working on a long term strategy to address wildlife movement across highways. The Team uses a 3-pronged approach of mitigation, research and, education to reduce wildlife mortality and establish innovative solutions to wildlife passage. Member contributions and outside grants have funded the Team’s outreach program, permanent camera array, deer collaring project, and three wildlife underpasses with fencing. [Poster P-54]

Two New Instructional Videos: Innovative Approaches to Wildlife and Highway Interactions, and Avoiding Animal/Vehicle Collisions
Abstract (PDF:82KB) | Image (PDF:2.27MB)

Sandra Jacobson, US Forest Service, Davis, California, United States

Two new instructional videos are presented. Innovative Approaches to Wildlife and Highway Interactions is a 60-minute video of the wildlife crossings segment of the 3-day training course offered by the US Forest Service. The video was produced by US FWS at locations across North America. Avoiding Animal/Vehicle Collisions is a 20-minute safety video targeted towards people who work in areas of high animal / vehicle collisions. It uses research results on animal behavior to help drivers avoid collisions by reducing risk factors. Both videos are available for no cost at the poster session and after the conference. [Poster P-55]

Highways and Wildlife: An Infographic
Abstract (PDF:162KB) | Image (PDF:4.41MB)

Rachelle Haddock, Miistakis Institute, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Highways and Wildlife is a communications tool to elevate the conversation on building or expanding highways with both wildlife and people in mind. The infographic was created to clearly convey why wildlife crossing structures are important, how they work, and their cost effectiveness. Its purpose is to debunk some of the myths surrounding wildlife crossing structures. The infographic features road ecology research and monitoring completed by Dr. Tony Clevenger, the Western Transportation Institute and the Miistakis Institute. It is freely available for non-commercial educational purposes. [Poster P-56]

Beyond Westway and Post 9/11: The Route 9A Project – A Model in Multimodal Sustainability
Abstract (PDF:256KB) | Image (PDF:423KB)

Lisa Weiss and Debra Nelson, New York State DOT, New York, New York, United States

NYSDOT’s Route 9A Project in NYC epitomizes how transportation supports a sustainable society. A crumbling 1930’s elevated highway has been transformed into a first-class, tree-lined urban boulevard with one of the most heavily-used bikeways in the country. This presentation illustrates Route 9A’s history from its beginning stages to today, showcasing the project’s extensive public outreach and partnering philosophy and illustrating how a transportation project approached from an environmental stewardship perspective can be the catalyst for economic competitiveness, social equity and community vitality. [Poster P-57]

Defining Sustainability Through Accountability and Performance: One Transportation Agency's Experience
Abstract (PDF:82KB) | Image (PDF:777KB)

Leigh Lane and Ted Mansfield, Center for Transportation and the Environment at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

The North Carolina DOT set out to develop a sustainability blueprint which culminated in a framing device to demonstrate performance-based accountability. NCDOT embarked upon a two year process to understand what sustainability means to the agency through establishing principles, objectives, performance metrics and strategies. This poster will outline the process used by NCDOT to develop its "Blueprint for Sustainability" accountability framework. Lesson learned will be presented to provide useful insights for how to integrate sustainability into a department’s strategic direction and policy framework. [Poster P-58]

Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of "Complete Streets" Practices
Abstract (PDF:137KB) | Image (PDF:251KB)

Nicholas Flanders, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States

System dynamics analysis seeks to trace the interrelated causes and effects of any given quantifiable measure, which are represented by causal-loop diagrams and mathematical formulas. This poster applies system dynamics to the question of whether and how a given human neighborhood can use "complete streets" design elements to enhance its environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Through several causal-loop "arrow" diagrams, the poster reveals unobvious impacts of street-design decisions and hints at preconditions that are necessary for some impacts to be manifested. It also highlights the limitations of system dynamics in assessing unique local or regional circumstances. [Poster P-59]

Regional Scale Planning: A Missing Link in Infrastructure-Related Programmes? Importance of the Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians
Abstract (PDF:14KB) | Image (PDF:219KB)

Miklós Puky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Göd, Hungary

Large-scale infrastructure-related decisions are nearly exclusively made at the federal/European Union or national/state level. However, smaller geographical units may have similar environmental needs over several national/state borders in the planning, construction and operational phase of transport infrastructure. The Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians was signed by the governments of four European Union and two neighbouring countries. From 2011 the Protocol on Sustainable Transport and Infrastructure has been on the agenda and Infra Eco Network Europe was invited as a consulting, advisory body to participate in the formation of the document. [Poster P-60]

Social Ecology (SE) of Adaptive Infrastructure: A Transportation Corridor Synthesis System Model Development Project
Abstract (PDF:156KB) | Image (PDF:6.75MB)

Charles Beck, Synthesis Three, Globe, Arizona, United States

This project’s objective is the development of social ecological infrastructure models through the application of 10 guiding principles: 1) A Social-Ecology Stewardship; 2) The recognition of Matter Energy, Space, Time and Information (MESTI) as Global Resources; 3) Connectivity ;4) Interchangeability; 5) Multi-scale Transboundaries; 6) Open Access to Knowledge; 7) Reciprocity; 8) Global Asset Building; 9) Transparency; and 10) Synthesis. The project goals are to: a) Develop interchangeable models for SE infrastructure projects at any scale and any ecosystem; b) Incorporate open source collaboration; c) Contribute to the open access World Knowledge Center development; and d) Explore development of a Social-Ecological pattern language. [Poster P-61]

From Ecological Barrier to Green Route: An Adaptive Management Approach Toward Sustainable Highways in Taiwan
Abstract (PDF:16KB) | Image (PDF:1.38MB)

Yu-Ping Chen, Observer Ecological Consultant Co., Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan

We propose a strategic approach for highway management that drew ecologists and engineers together in planning and execution of ecological impact mitigation plans on a national scale. A spatial analysis on habitat sensitivity supplemented by flora and fauna survey facilitated decision making on priority sites for animal crossings and habitat conservation, whereas the ecological investigation on roadside plantation and the roadkill survey along the highway system enabled sound solutions to be developed and monitored. Overall we successfully raised stakeholder engagement and public awareness. [Poster P-62]

Applying Rapid Ecological Assessment to Road Engineering in Taiwan
Abstract (PDF:14KB) | no image available

Chia-Yu Tsai and Yu-Ping Chen, Observer Ecological Consultant Co., Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan

We tried to apply REA for a roadway feasibility study project in South Taiwan. In this project, we practiced large scale REA and tried to find an eco-friendly corridor. We mapped ecological sensitive areas with Geographic information system (GIS), proceeded several topical surveys to confirm the indefinite problems further. In this REA procession, the workshop provides a communication platform for ecologists, engineers, scholars, and NGOs. The map of ecological sensitive areas also has great contribution for REA team to analyze the ecological problems and access impact treatments for roadway plans. [Poster P-63]

Identifying Sustainable Dust Control for Low-Volume Roads: Phase Three Field Tests of the USGS/USFWS Collaboration
Abstract (PDF:12KB) | Image (PDF:814KB)

Bethany Williams, US Geological Survey, Columbia, Missouri, United States

Although millions of gallons of dust suppressant products are applied to unpaved roads each year, the short- and long-term effects of these applications on roadside plant and animal communities are virtually unknown. We identified several non-toxic dust control products through laboratory toxicity tests and are now evaluating products under real-world conditions. Road sections treated with three low-toxicity products (cellulose-based, synthetic fluid, and enhanced magnesium chloride) at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas are being monitored for product performance and environmental safety. This project will help Federal and other road managers select safe, effective road products while protecting natural resources. [Poster P-64]

South Africa: The Road Ahead
Abstract (PDF:89KB) | Image (PDF:1011KB)

Wendy Collinson, Endangered Wildlife Trust and Rhodes University, Johannesburg, South Africa

South Africa is the third most biologically diverse country on Earth comprising eight World Heritage Sites and 19 national parks, with 6.9% of the country under formal protection. The extensive road network is linked to economic development and growth, with mining and tourism being the two main revenue earners. The country’s transport network is under increasing pressure to meet these expansions, with little consideration of the costs to biodiversity. Research on the impacts of roads on wildlife has been slower in South Africa than elsewhere in the world, and mitigation of such impacts is yet to be fully considered during road construction. [Poster P-65]

Factors Affecting Animal Non-Identification Rates in Aviation Strike Reporting
Abstract (PDF:83KB) | Image (PDF:728KB)

Tara Conkling, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States

A primary concern for human-wildlife interactions is the potential impacts resulting from wildlife strikes (primarily birds) with aircraft. Identification of avian species responsible for collisions, along with regional, seasonal, or temporal patterns in strikes, is necessary for airport management to develop effective strategies to reduce bird strikes. We analyzed U.S. civil aviation strike records from 1990–2010 in the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) National Wildlife Strike Database to examine patterns of collisions involving unidentified birds. By identifying areas and time periods with the greatest amount of unidentified strikes, we will help foster sound management and personnel training. [Poster P-66]

Effects of Transportation Project Pile Driving on Fish, Birds and Marine Mammals in Washington State
Abstract (PDF:85KB) | Image (PDF:679KB)

Mark Bakeman, Washington State DOT, Olympia, Washington, United States

Pile driving is a common feature of transportation projects in freshwater and marine environments. In Washington State, piles are used for bridge piers, ferry terminals, and temporary over-water structures. Underwater sound waves produced by pile driving affect fish, marine mammals, and diving sea birds. A complex set of underwater noise thresholds for these taxa have been established by federal regulatory agencies, and consultation and permitting may be needed under the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. We review the various monitoring zones that might be needed for different taxa on a pile driving project. [Poster P-67]

Streamlining Endangered Species Act Consultations for Transportation Projects in Washington State
Abstract (PDF:81KB) | Image (PDF:1.41MB)

Marion Carey and Mark Bakeman, Washington State DOT, Olympia, Washington, United States

The numbers of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) has dramatically increased within Washington State. These listing have had a significant impact on the ability of transportation projects to complete their ESA Section 7 consultations. In response, the Federal Highways Administration, Washington State Department of Transportation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NOAA Fisheries, developed a team approach to facilitating consultations which involved upper level managers. The team developed and implemented both short term solutions focused on meeting ad dates and long term solutions focused on developing appropriate analytical methods for complicated effects analysis. [Poster P-68]

Technological Achievements of Changbai Mountain Area Highway Landscape Construction
Abstract (PDF:83KB) | Image (PDF:2.39MB)

Jian Zhou, China Academy of Transportation Sciences, Beijing, China

Great emphasis was placed on the introduction of advanced design concepts and technologies during the construction of the Changbai Mountain area highway. We have gained valuable experience in ecological protection, resource uses, vegetation restoration and landscape design through demonstration and practices. The Changbai Mountain area highway landscape design reflects the concepts of flexibility, tolerance and humanization in both ideas and details. It also achieves the overall goal of longer life, better environment, more comfortable driving and more investment savings. These practices are worthy of further exchanges and spreads. [Poster P-69]

Tusayan Enhancement Project
Abstract (PDF:79KB) | no image available

Stephen Monroe and Chuck Howe, Arizona DOT, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States

Located a few minutes south of the South entrance to Grand Canyon National Park, this small community receives in excess of 3 million visitors annually. The project, which was recently completed, addressed multiple issues from pedestrian safety, traffic calming, and transit shelters. The context sensitivity of this community, in addition to the need for safety improvements provided a unique project. [Poster P-70]

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